Oslo's overall performance by theme (spidergram and sliding scales)
  • For each of the 16 themes, Oslo has been evaluated in multiple comparative indexes, benchmarks and metrics. 

    For each theme, Oslo's competitiveness has been graded on a 10-point scale, based on its performance relative to all other comparator cities that appeared in at least one index, benchmark or metric within each theme. 
  • For each index, benchmark or metric, rankings were inputted to our ELO algorithm which is used to compute the overall performance of all the measured comparator cities for each theme. 

    The ELO algorithm rates cities or regions by comparing their performance in every possible permutation against a list of other cities/regions. The system produces the most accurate comparative assessment of city/region performance, as it accounts for the fact that some cities/regions appear in more rankings than do others, and that each ranking measures a different number of cities. 

    For themes where there was more than one perception-based measure, two ELO algorithm runs were undertaken - one using all the rankings taken from purely performance-based measures, and another for all measures containing a perceptual element. For these themes, Oslo receives a score for both performance and perception. Any of the 50 cities not appearing in at least one index, benchmark or metric were discounted from any ELO algorithm runs. 
  • Oslo's final score for each theme is based on its overall score, where Oslo’s rank compared to all other measured cities within that theme determines the decile in which it falls. A score of 0.9-1 would put Oslo in the top decile, 0.8-0.9 in the 2nd decile, and so on. 

    - e.g. In performance only measures, Oslo ranks 29th out of 50 comparator cities for Innovation, giving it a score of 1 - (29/50) = 0.42. This puts Oslo in the 6th decile for Innovation performance. 

    - e.g. In measures with a perception element, Oslo ranks 13th out of 45 comparator cities for Quality and Integrity, giving it a score of 1 - (13/50) = 0.71 (5 cities are discounted from 
Oslo's overall performance by theme (spidergram and sliding scales)

Figure 10 

Source: The Business of Cities research. *Max = city or country appears in all top lists and is consistently rated in the top 5. Includes the following studies/articles: MoveHub Where to Move after Coronavirus; ExpatNetwork Top Cities for Expats to Move to post-Covid-19; Global Finance Magazine Best Cities to Live; The Street Best Places to Live if you Can Work from Anywhere; Forbes World's Top 10 Places to Move; BCG Decoding Global Talent 2021; InterNations Best and Worst Cities for Expats; ShipIt Best 10 Places for Digital Nomads After Covid. 

Scoring system as follows: 
If city is mentioned: top 5 = 5 points; top 10 = 4 points; top 15 = 3 points; top 20 = 2 points; top 25 = 1 point; top 30 = 0.5 points 
If the home country is mentioned: top 5 = 2.5 points; top 10 = 2 points; top 15 = 1.5 points; top 20 = 1 point; top 25 = 0.5 points 

Figure 12

Measures the per capita number of employees working in roles in the knowledge, policy, and digital economies, as registered on Linkedin as of June 2020. Includes the following industries: Architecture and planning, aviation and aerospace, biotechnology, civil engineering, commercial real estate, computer and network security, computer hardware, computer software, defence and space, design, industrial automation, information services, international affairs, international trade and development, internet, mechanical or industrial engineering, medical devices, nanotechnology, online media, philanthropy, program development, public policy, renewables and environment, telecommunications, transportation, wireless. 

Endnote 115

Includes all local tech enabled firm HQs tagged with one or more of the following: virtual reality, ticketing, virtual world, point of sale, sales automation, virtualisation, craft beer, distillery, farmer’s market, restaurants, local shopping, made to order, retail, shopping, shopping mall, electronics, fashion, social shopping, virtual goods, wearables, museums and historical sites, music venues, nightclubs, nightlife, theatre, fitness, outdoors, wellness, casino, hospitality, hotel, tourism